||A single, standalone networked application, typically deployed on the Web.
||Essential infrastructure, providing a service on which other services/software depend.
||Software library or plugin, a component to be used in another tool or system. This is typically - but not necessarily - a 'back-end' component, not directly interacted with by an end user. Most modern software is composed of many software components: we only include those which are either particularly focussed on delivering some function related to scholarly communications, or those which are foundational to more than one other and important technology listed here.
||Software framework for building applications/systems. This is usually a set of related - and sometime interdependent - software components which can be combined to form the foundations for an application.
||Packaged software (typically for the desktop or mobile) or browser plugin. This category includes complete applications designed to be run on a user's personal computer or device, rather than accessed remotely.
||Formally recognised information standard, or profile of a technology - e.g. a profile of a standard or protocol to constrain it to a particular use case or domain